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Rulers and monarchs in ancient and modern times


The second Saturday in June sees the birthday parade of Queen Elizabeth II. This annual display of pomp and pageantry on London’s Horse Guards Parade is known as trooping the colour, and marks Her Majesty’s official birthday – while her real birthday is on 21 April.

The Queen’s official birthday is celebrated in many Commonwealth countries around the world, and is a public holiday in countries and territories such as Australia, New Zealand, and Gibraltar, although on different dates. It is usually a normal working day in the UK in 2011 but in 2012, there will be an extra bank holiday to mark the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee.

To get you in the mood for the celebrations, here are a few appellations for rulers in ancient and modern times.

(chiefly historical) in Muslim countries, especially under the Ottoman Empire: a military commander or official.

a title of Roman emperors, especially those from Augustus to Hadrian.

(historical) a German prince entitled to take part in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor.

grand duke
a prince or nobleman ruling over a territory in certain European countries.

the title of the viceroy of Egypt under Turkish rule 1867–1914.

(historical) a title given to the emperor of Japan.

(historical) a ruler, or the supreme ruler, of Ethiopia.

a ruler in ancient Egypt.

a Hindu queen.

a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor or is absent or incapacitated.

a hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan.

the Emperor of Japan.

a ruler exercising authority in a colony on behalf of a sovereign.

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